The Commercial (Lower) Agora of Ephesus was linked to the harbour by the Arcadiane, and stood close to its junction with the Marble Street, just to the south-west of the theatre. With an almost square plan, the Tetragonos Agora - whose ancient name, meaning the Square Market, has been confirmed by the inscriptions - was built for commercial purposes. It had impressive dimensions as its sides were 111 meters long. The Commercial Agora had three main gates, enabling access from the north onto Harbour Street, the south-east, and the west. The most impressive and best-preserved of these gates is the so-called Gate of Mazaeus and Mithridates on the south-eastern side, very close to the Celsus Library.
The name of this stop - Troy I - means that you are now standing in the place where the oldest traces of human settlement within the Hisarlık Mound have been found. The history of the city dates back to the Early Bronze Age, i.e. around the year 3000 BCE, when the first settlement was established here. It was a small village, built on terraces of the hill, and consisting of 20 tiny rectangular houses. They were erected from interconnected blocks of stone and bricks.
A temple-like monument, known as the Temple of Hadrian, stands in front of the Scholastica Baths, facing the Curetes Street. When it was discovered 1956 and subsequently re-erected in the following two years, it was commonly assumed that it really was the Temple of Emperor Hadrian, a "neocorate temple" of official worship of the Roman emperor. The permission to build such a temple in Ephesus was granted by Hadrian between 130 and 132 CE, and the archaeologists eagerly identified the building on Curetes Street as such.
July of 2020 was marked as the month when one of the most precious world heritage assets of Turkey, the former church of Hagia Sophia, was transformed from the museum to the mosque. This highly controversial political move causing an outcry on both domestic and international forums, and raised questions about the future of the building and its wonderful frescoes and mosaics. In other news, the archaeological discoveries in Pergamon pushed back the history of the city by several centuries while excavations resumed in Oylum Höyük on the Syrian border. Finally, Sümela Monastery in the Black Sea region reopened after restoration.
The city, now called Istanbul, was once known as Constantinople, the capital of the mighty Eastern Roman Empire, frequently referred to as Byzantium. The emperors and their courts that resided in the city required suitable accommodation, of the magnificent proportions reflecting their power and majesty. Sadly, almost nothing has been preserved of the Great Palace of Constantinople, the main royal residence from 330 to 1081 that served as the centre of imperial administration. The most of the remains of this palace currently lie below the Sultan Ahmed Mosque and other Ottoman-era buildings, to the south-east to the former Hippodrome, now the Sultanahmet Square. However, one part of the palatial complex is still visible above the ground, facing the waters of the Sea of Marmara. This building, known as the Bukoleon Palace, is located to the south of the Great Palace, and to the east of the Church of Sts. Sergius and Bacchus. Now partly demolished, it once served as the prestigious seafront residence of the emperors.