Water Cave of Wilusa is an artificial cave, not a work of nature. A 160-meter-long corridor was cut in the rock, heading eastward. It is connected to the surface by four vertical shafts with a height of up to 17 meters. The corridor was made in the third millennium BCE. It means that in the heyday of Troy VI, the cave had already been in use for a thousand years.
2020 was the year lived under the shadow of the world pandemic and many major plans failed to come into fruition. The same can be said about the situation in Turkish archaeology and travel industry. While some of the excavation projects were continued, others came to a halt as the foreign archaeological teams did not manage to arrive to Turkey. This was the situation, for instance, in Didyma and Ephesus.
In December 2020, archaeologists continued the works in ancient Prusias ad Hypium where the grave of a baby and a number of statues were found. The ongoing restoration works at the Topkapı Palace revealed decorations with simurg and dragon motifs. Moreover, the preparations began for the 3,000-year-old Şamran Irrigation Channel, which was built during the Urartu Kingdom period, to be included on UNESCO’s World Heritage List. The Turkish Culture and Tourism Ministry brought back a statue of Kybele, pre-historic goddess of fertility, which was smuggled to Israel in 1960s and sold there.
As the travel plans of so many of us collapsed with the spread of the coronavirus pandemic, the only possible way to visit the archaeological sites and museums is to go online and check which collections have already been digitised. In the case of Turkey, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism established Sanal Muze website that offers a 3D experience of some of the best-known state-run archaeological and ethnographic museums. The downside of this project is the fact that even though the museums offer descriptions of the exhibits, they are only available in Turkish at the moment.
In the quarter of Ephesus located to the north-east of the junction of Marble and Curetes streets, a public latrine was found. It was constructed in the 1st century CE over a channel with an uninterrupted flow of water and the toilet seats, formed by cutting holes into marble benches that line the walls. There were three rows of toilets along three sides of the latrine. The toilets were wholes cut in a marble bench, and their total number was 48.